There is an axis of symmetry for diatomic molecules. This means commutes with and is a good quantum number. The different states, we have seen, have quite different shapes therefore bond differently. Imagine that a valence electron is in a state. The are called molecular orbitals respectively. Each has a bonding and an antibonding state.
Pictures of molecular orbitals are shown for and states in the following figure. Both bonding and antibonding orbitals are shown first as atomic states then as molecular. The antibonding states are denoted by a *.
Jim Branson 2013-04-22