To solve this, we need to compute the potential at the center of the charge distribution relative to the potential at infinity (which we will say is zero). This tells us directly the kinetic energy in eV needed to plow right through the charge distribution.
The potential at the surface of the nucleus is
where Z is the number of protons in the atom and R is the nuclear radius.
That's the easy part. Now we need to integrate our way into the center.
The is then the kinetic energy in eV needed for a particle of charge to plow right through the center of a spherical charge distribution. The particle actually has charge so we need to multiply by 2. For a nuclear radius of 5 Åor meters, we need about 680 eV to plow through the nucleus. For the actual nuclear radius of about 5 Fermis or meters, we need 68 MeV to plow through.
Lets compare the above SI units numbers to my suggested method of using the fine structure constant...
Putting in the alpha charge of
Jim Branson 2013-04-22